How to diagnose infertility in male and female?

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How To Diagnose Infertility in Male and Female?


Hello everyone. I am Dr. Samit Sekhar, Director at Kiran Infertility Centre having branches in Bangalore, Hyderabad and Gurgaon and overseas branches in Ukraine and a consulting office in Dubai.  In today’s video, I am going to discuss these topics in brief.

  1. Basics of Infertility
  2. Reasons for Infertility causes
  3. How to diagnose infertility

First approach to understanding Infertility Treatment

When an infertile couple approaches our fertility clinic for consultation the first step before we provide treatments for infertility that we follow is to get to know about the following points:

  1. A detailed history of male and female partners which includes how many years they are married, whether it is a case of primary or secondary infertility etc.
  2. Menstrual history of female
  3. The couple is made aware of the basics of conception in a female.
  4. Reproductive anatomy explained to the couple.
  5. Discussing the Medical, Psychological and Surgical history of the couple.
  6. Pre-existing conditions like heart disease, diabetes or any kidney related disorders.

The next step that follows is the basic and detailed evaluation that includes blood tests and imaging.

Read more on the basic fertility assessment at KIC here

Fertility assessment for male:

  • Routine Hemogram
  • Detailed Semen Analysis
  • Total Sperm Count
  • Motility and Morphology of Sperm
  • Test for Azoospermia

Learn more about the causes of male infertility here 


Azoospermia is the condition where a male has a complete lack of sperm in the ejaculate. The condition, commonly referred to as “no sperm count”, occurs in about 5% of infertile men and can be divided into two major categories:

  • Obstructive Azoospermia: Sperm is being produced in the testicles, but there is a blockage such that the sperm cannot reach the ejaculate.
  • Non-Obstructive Azoospermia: There is a problem with sperm production leading to either no sperm being produced or a very low level that cannot make it all the way out of the testicles.

Fertility assessment for female:

  • Routine Blood test
  • Hormonal study to check for levels of AMH (Anti-Müllerian hormone), TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone), Prolactin, FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone), Estradiol levels.
  • Pelvic Ultrasound (done to determine the size and shape of the uterus, detect fibroids or adhesions, determine the size and shape of ovaries.)
  • HSG or hysterosalpingogram (for checking whether fallopian tubes are opened or blocked). If fallopian tubes are blocked, it is impossible for a couple to conceive using the natural process.

Read more on female infertility here

Based on the degree of infertility in the couple, treatment options are suggested by our experts which will be as a) only for male, b) only for female or c) both male and female.

Basic Treatment options


Counseling involves making the infertile couple to become aware of the best possible time when to have intercourse so as to ensure maximum chances of getting pregnant.

Detailed treatment options


Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is the placing of washed sperm into a woman’s uterus when she is ovulating. This procedure is useful for couples with unexplained infertility, minimal male factor infertility, and women with cervical mucus problems. 2 to 4 cycles generally recommended. Best is 6 cycles to properly assess whether the treatment is successful or not.

Read more about the IUI process here.

The next option is IVF. Read IVF treatment-related information here.


IVF is the process of fertilization by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm sample, and then manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish.

IVF or in-vitro fertility technique was developed by Edwards and Steptoe in late 1977  and world’s 1st baby was born through IVF in Oldham General Hospital, Greater Manchester, UK.was Louis Brown in 1978, since then millions of babies across the globe have been born with this revolutionary technology.

With the advance in technology, the success rate of IVF is more now as compared to the ’80s.

IVF is required in these cases where:

  • IUI is unsuccessful
  • Egg quality not good

IVF Process- How it is done

  • Injection is given to induce ovulation
  • Oocyte aspiration
  • Sperm inseminated around eggs
  • 3-5 days needed for growing embryos and then 2-3 good embryos are transferred to the endometrium

To learn more about the IVF Process read our blog on” IVF Process: 4 Steps to Getting Pregnant” here

ICSI (an advanced form of IVF for male factor infertility)

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, an in vitro fertilization procedure in which a single sperm cell is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg. This technique is used in order to prepare the gametes for embryos that may be transferred to a maternal uterus.

For this purpose, a micromanipulator is used for fertilization. Generally, 1-3 IVF cycles are required to ensure a better success rate.

ICSI is the preferred method for severe male infertility factor cases.

Read more about ICSI treatment click here

Also as a bonus, read our blog on “Why sperm counts are dropping for men today?” here



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