PCOD

Polycystic Ovary disease (COD) is one of the very common causes for infertility. Patients have several small cysts in their ovaries. This occurs when the regular changes of a normal menstrual cycle are disturbed. The ovary is enlarged and this produces excessive amounts of androgen and estrogenic hormones.

Polycystic ovary syndrome which is also known as hyper androgenic (HA) or Stein-Leventhal syndrome is a set of symptoms due to a hormone imbalance in women.

There are various symptoms and signs of PCOS that include,
  • Irregular or no menstrual periods
  • Excess body and facial hair
  • Heavy periods
  • Pelvic pain
  • Acne
  • Patches of thick, darker, velvety skin
  • Trouble of getting pregnant
  • Associated conditions include type2 diabetes, heart disease, mood disorders, endometrial cancer, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea etc.

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is due to the combination of environmental and genetic factors. This may also be due to the risk factors that include no physical exercise, obesity, family history of someone with the condition. Diagnosis is based on the following three findings: ovarian cysts, no ovulation and high androgen levels. Cysts can be noticeable by ultrasound. There are also few other conditions that produce similar symptoms such as hypothyroidism, hyperplasia, hyperprolactinemia.

    PCOS has no cure but needs to be managed. There is PCOD treatment in Bengaluru that may also involve lifestyle changes such as exercise and weight loss. Excess hair, acne, improving the regularity of periods may be helpful with the birth control pills. Metformin and anti-androgens may also help to manage this syndrome. The efforts to improve fertility include clomiphene, weight loss, metformin etc.

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder among women. This syndrome can be seen between the ages of 18to 44. The disease affects approximately 5to10% of this age group. This disease is one of the leading causes of poor fertility

    Diagnosis

    Not everyone with ovarian cysts has PCOS nor does everyone with PCOS have polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis straightforward uses the Rotterdam criteria, even when the syndrome is associated with wide range of symptoms.

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    The primary treatment for PCOS include,

    • Medications
    • Surgery
    • Lifestyle changes
    • Diet

      Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with obesity or overweight. Successful weight loss is mainly the efficient method of restoring regular menstruation. A lot of women find it very difficult to achieve and sustain significant weight loss.

      Medications

      PCOD treatment in Bengaluru provides medications that include metformin and oral contraceptives. The oral contraceptive increases the sex hormones that bind globulin production. This increases the binding of free testosterone. This also reduces the symptoms of hirsutism that is caused by high testosterone that regulates return to normal menstrual periods.

      Metformin is a drug that is commonly used in type2 diabetes so as to reduce insulin resistance and is also used to treat insulin resistance seen in PCOS. In several cases, metformin supports ovarian function and returns to normal ovulation.

      Not all women having PCOS finds it difficult to get pregnant. For those who do, an infrequent ovulation or anovulation is a common cause.Other factors include,

      • Hyperandrogenemia
      • Changed levels of gonadotropins
      • Hyperinsulinemia
      • For women who are not reacting to clomiphene, lifestyle medication and diet, there are various other options that are available including assisted reproductive technology procedures such as controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) injections followed by in vitro fertilization (IVF).

        The polycystic ovaries can be treated with a laparoscopic process called "Ovarian drilling" that results in either resumption of spontaneous ovulation or ovulation after adjuvant treatment with clomiphene or FSH. Surgery is strictly not preferred to treat this disease.